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We tracked toucans with small GPS units to understand their movement patterns and dispersal of seeds.  We used detailed tracking data to determine where they were likely feeding, determined how long they typically ingest a seed before spitting it up, and then combined these two data sets to estimate how far they actually disperse seeds.   Wild toucans moved an average of 1.8 km/day with two distinct activity peaks. Seed retention time in captive toucans ranged from 4–98 min. Estimated seed dispersal distance averaged 144m, with a 56% likelihood of dispersal >100 m.  Dispersal was furthest for seeds ingested in the morning, and increased with seed retention time, but only up to 60 min after feeding.
Estimated seed shadow from toucans
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